# Linear Fractional Transformations

## Definition and basic facts

Let M be a Möbius transformation. Then

• M can be expressed as the composition of a finite number of rotations, translations, magnifications and inversions
• M maps the extended complex-plane $\{ C \cup \infty \}$ to itself
• M maps the class of circles and lines to circles and lines
• M is conformal at every point besides its pole

## Poles and Fixed Points

A pole (regular singularity) of a function is a point z0 where $\lim_{z \rightarrow z_{0}} f(z) = \infty$.
A fixed point of a function f(z) is a point z0 such that f(z0) = z0 That is the point gets mapped to the same spot in the UV-plane.

1. Find the poles of $M = \frac{az+b}{cz+d}$. How many poles does it have? How many fixed points does it have? (These answers should depend on a, b, c and d.) Show your work (computations).

2. A. If a line or circle passes through the pole of M then it must be mapped to what shape?
B. If a line or circle does NOT pass thru the pole of M it must get mapped to what kind of shape?
C. Where does M map the point at infinity?

## Inverses of linear fractional transformations

Since M is a one-to-one mapping on the extended complex plane, it has an inverse.
If you solve w = M then $M^{-1}=\frac{dz-b}{-cz+a}$ where $ad-bc \neq 0$
Note that the inverse is also an LFT. In general, if S and T are two LFTs, then S(T(z)) is also an LFT.

3. A. Let $M=\frac{z}{2z-8}$. Find the inverse of f.
B. Find the image of the interior of the circle | z − 2 | = 2 under the LFT f.
C. Sketch the image and pre-image of C under w=f(z).

## Some special cases

4. Show that every Möbius transformation of the form $M(z) =\frac{pz+q}{\bar{q}z+\bar{p}}$ where | p | > | q | can be rewritten in the form $M(z) = e^{i \theta}\frac{z-a}{\bar{a}z-1}$ where | a | < 1.
5. Show that Möbius transformation of the form $M(z) = e^{i \theta}\frac{z-a}{\bar{a}z-1}$ where | a | < 1 map the unit circle and unit disk onto itself. Is this also true for the inverse of M?
6. Show that Möbius transformation of the form $M(z) =\frac{az+2b}{\bar{b}z+\bar{a}}$ where | a | 2 − 2 | b | 2 = 1 map the circle | z | 2 = 2 to itself. Is this also true for the inverse of M? What happens to the circle if we apply two different Möbius transformations of this type?

## Group structure

7. We can associate a matrix to a Möbius transformation. In problem 6 we would have the matrix $\mathbf{M} = \begin{pmatrix} a & 2b \\ \bar{b} & \bar{a} \end{pmatrix}$. We would like to show that the collection of matrices $\{ \mathbf{M} = \begin{pmatrix} a & 2b \\ \bar{b} & \bar{a}\end{pmatrix} | |a|^2-2|b|^2=1 \}$ forms a group. We would need to show that the collection is closed under multiplication, has an identity element, has an inverse and is associative.
a. Closed under multiplication: Show that given two arbitrary elements, the product belongs to the collection. I.e. show that $\begin{pmatrix} a_1 & 2b_1 \\ \bar{b}_1 & \bar{a}_1 \end{pmatrix} * \begin{pmatrix} a_2 & 2b_2 \\ \bar{b}_2 & \bar{a}_2 \end{pmatrix}$ is a matrix that belongs to the collection.
b. Identity element: Show that $\mathbf{I} = \begin{pmatrix} 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 \end{pmatrix}$ belongs to our collection.
c. Inverses: Given $\mathbf{M} = \begin{pmatrix} a & 2b \\ \bar{b} & \bar{a} \end{pmatrix}$, show that the inverse also belongs to the collection.
d. Associativity: Show that $(\mathbf{M_1} \mathbf{M_2})\mathbf{M_3} = \mathbf{M_1} (\mathbf{M_2} \mathbf{M_3})$