Ancient Egypt

         

Page by Anneke Bart




 

Kings and Queens

4th dynasty
Seneferu, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure, Djedefre, etc.

11th dynasty
Kings named Mentuhotep and Intef

12th dynasty
Amenemhet I - IV,
Senusret I-III


18th dynasty
Amenhotep I-IV,
Tuthmosis I-IV, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Aye, Horemheb, etc.


19th dynasty
Sety I-II, Ramesses I-II, Merenptah, Amenmesses, Tawosret.

20th dynasty

Sethnakht, Ramesses III
Ramesses IV - XI




Cleopatra VII Philopator

Queens (D1-6)- Old Kingdom
Queens (D11-13) Middle Kingd.
Queens (D16-20)- New Kingdom
Queens (D21-29)- Late Period



 

Officials, Priesthood etc.
Viziers (New Kingdom)
High Priests of Amun
God's Wives of Amun
High Priests of Ptah
Viceroys of Nubia
Who's who of New Kingdom


Amarna Period
Akhenaten
Queen Nefertiti
inscriptions Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Kiya

Smenkhare
Tutankhamen
Tombs at Amarna
Houses at Amarna

 
Tombs:
Valley of the Kings,
Valley of the Queens
Theban Tombs,
Tombs at Abydos
Tombs at El Kab
Tombs in Aswan
Early dynastic Saqqara
New Kingdom Saqqara
The Unis Cemetary

 
Mastabas at the Giza Plateau
Giza Mastabas 1000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 2000 cemetary
Giza Mataba 2300 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 4000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 5000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 6000 cemetary
Giza Mastaba 7000 cemetary
 

Mummy Caches
Tomb DB320
Tomb KV35

Thutmosis IV (Menkheperure)
1398 – 1388 B.C.


Famous statue of Tuthmosis IV and his mother Tiaa.

Horus name: Kanakht Tutkhau
Nebty name: Djednisytmiitum
Golden Falcon name: Userkhepesh-derpedjetpesdjet
Prenomen: Menkheperure
Nomen: Thutmose

Family background:
Tuthmosis was a son of Akheperure Amenhotep II and Tiaa.  Tiaa was not shown as a wife of Amenhotep II during this king’s reign. Several monuments were created for Tiaa at Giza, Thebes and the Fayoum during the reign of her son Thutmosis IV. Some monuments previously belonging to her mother-in-law Merytre-Hatshepsut were usurped and used for Tiaa.

Wives:
  • Nefertari: Wife of Tuthmosis IV. Attested at Giza and Luxor.
    Titles: Great King’s Wife (hmt-niswt-wrt)
  • Iaret (Wadjet?): Sister and wife of King Tuthmosis IV.
    Titles: King’s Daughter (s3t-niswt), King’s Sister (snt-niswt), Great King’s Wife (hmt-niswt-wrt), Great King’s Daughter (s3t-niswt-wrt)
  • Tenettepihu ?: This Queen is known from a shabti and funerary statue. Thought to date to the time of Tuthmosis IV?
    Titles: Hereditary Princess (iryt-p`t), Great of Praises (wrt-hzwt), Sweet of Love (bnrt-mrwt), King’s Wife, his beloved (hmt-nisw meryt.f), Great King’s Wife (hmt-niswt-wrt)
  • Mutemwiya: Minor wife of Tuthmosis IV. She was also the mother of Tuthmosis' heir, Amenhotep III. Became more prominent during the reign of her son. She was buried at Thebes.Titles: God’s Wife (hmt-ntr), Great King’s Wife (hmt-niswt-wrt), Lady of The Two Lands (nbt-t3wy), Great King’s Wife, his beloved (hmt-niswt-wrt meryt.f), Hereditary Princess (iryt-p`t), Great of Praises (wrt-hzwt), Sweet of Love (bnrt-mrwt), Mistress of Upper and Lower Egypt (hnwt-Shm’w-mhw), God’s Mother (mwt-ntr). It has been suggested that Mutemwia was related to the Akhmin family, and possibly a sister of the God’s father and Master of the Horse Yuya who we see at Amenhotep III’s court. But there is no proof for this hypothesis.
  • [Mitanni Princess] Henutempet?: unnamed daughter of Artatama, King of Mitanni. Ter Velde and van Dijk suggest that this princess may have been given the name of Henutempet. This name appears on the funerary cone of the Steward Bengay. (Essays on Ancient Egypt in Honour of Herman Te Velde. By Herman te Velde, Jacobus van Dijk) Others have speculated that this Mitanni princess is actually Queen Mutemwia. There is no conclusive evidence either way. 


Tuthmosis IV came from a fairly large family and he is known to have had at least eight brothers. His brother Amenhotep was Sem-priest of Ptah at Memphis. This prince was probably the original heir of Amenhotep II. He is mentioned in a papyrus at the British Museum. Prince Khaemweset was overseer of cattle and named in Sehel graffiti.
Prince Ahmose became High Priest of Re at Heliopolis. The other brothers, Akheperkare, Akheperure, Amenemopet, Nedjem and Webensenu, are only known by name and not much more is known about these individuals.


Tuthmosis only ruled for approximately ten years, but we do know about several children of Tuthmosis. He had at least four sons. Aakheperure was possibly a son of Thutmosis IV, and he was present during the military campaign in year 7 in Nubia.
Amenhotep later became Paraoh as Amenhotep III. A prince named Amenemhat, died young and was buried with his father in KV 43. Prince Siatum is only known to us because he apparently had a daughter named Nebetia.
He also had at least four daughters. They are named Amenemopet, Pyihia (or Petepihu?),
Tiaa, and Tintamun.



The reign of Thutmosis IV.
Thutmosis IV comes to the throne after his father Amenhotep II had reigned for 26 years. There are some indications that Thutmosis’s brother Amenhotep was crown prince, and that some power struggle ensued. The final result was that Prince Amenhotep disappears, the dowager Queen Merytre-Hatshepsut may have suffered disgrace. Her tomb in the King’s Valley is never used, and her monuments are usurped by Thutmosis’s mother Tiaa. There is also the former treasurer of Amenhotep II whose  name, Amenken, is everywhere erased from his tomb. This indicates there may have been a problem in the transition of power.



Part of the dream stela from Giza. Tuthmosis IV stands before the great Sphinx
For entire image plus text see: Lepsius Abt III, Band 5, Bl. 68


In his first year Thutmosis erects the Dream Stela between the paws of the Great Sphinx at Giza. In this stela Thutmosis claims to have fallen asleep in the shadow of the Sphinx when he was still a Prince. In his dream he was visited by the god represented by the Sphinx, Horemakhet-Khepri-Re-Atum. The god tells him he will give Thutmosis the kingship and that he shall wear the white and red crowns of Egypt. Thutmosis has the Sphinx cleared from the sand, and indeed becomes king of Egypt.

      
Two depictions of Tuthmosis IV from Karnak. (Photos by Sesen)

The early years  appear peaceful, and there is evidence of building projects at Karnak and other sites. There is some evidence of Asiatic wars in the beginning of his reign. There is reference to tribute from Naharin and Retenu.
 In year 7 Thutmosis’s eldest son had died and Amenhotep is declared heir even though his mother Mutemwia is only a minor wife. In the same year Iaret is promoted to Great Royal Wife. During the same period Thutmosis goes on a military campaign against Nubia. While engaged in ceremonies of the Theban temple, on the second of Phamenoth, in year 8, Thutmosis receives a message reporting a revolt in Wawat. The next morning goes to the temple to consult the gods and receives an oracle predicting success. He then proceeds South and wins the battle.
Inscriptions at Konosso show that the great Royal Wife Iaret came along on the campaign. Iaret is shown at the king’s side when he smites the Nubians.

In his tenth year Thutmosis IV dies, and is followed on the throne by his son Amenhotep III.

Death and burial.

Tuthmosis IV was buried in the King’s Valley, and his tomb is assigned the label KV43.
     The mummy of Tuthmosis IV was actually found in 1898 in the mummy cache in KV35, the tomb of his father Amenhotep II. The mummy shows the remains of a slightly built man who died in his late twenties. The body suffered several post-mortem injuries, including having his legs broken at both ankles and at his right knee.
         The tomb of Tuthmosis IV was discovered in 1904 by Theodore Davies. The tomb had been robbed in antiquity and the mummy of Tuthmosis IV had been removed by priests during the time of the 21st dynasty. They had left the mummy of a young boy propped up against a wall in a side chamber. This may be the mummy of a son of Tuthmosis. Even though the tomb of Tuthmosis IV was robbed, it still contained an extensive range of burial equipment when it was discovered. These finds were documented by Howard Carter and Percy Newbury.
  •      The tomb still contained several canopic jars and their box. Some of the Canopic Jars belonged to Prince Amenemhat and Princess Tentamen, respectively the son and the daughter of the king.
  •      Four magical figures were found as well. These magical figures were associated with the northern, southern, eastern and western wall and depicted a mummified figure, a magical flame, a magical jackal and a magical Ded figure.
  •     Several wooden figures were recovered. Some depict the king, while others show animal forms and are reminiscent of the animal figures that decorated the beds in Tutankhamen’s tomb. The figures are all bare and show signs that gold has possibly been adzed off the surface.
  •      A handful of fragments of furniture were still present in the tomb. A panel from a side of a throne was recovered. On one side Tuthmosis is shown as a human headed lion, while on the other side the king is shown in the company of the  lion-headed goddess Uret-hekau and the Ibis headed god Tahuti.
  •     Fragments of a chariot were found in a pillared hall just outside the burial chamber. The wheels and several other parts of the chariot are missing, but the body of the chariot was found. The body of the chariot was decorated on the inside as well as on the outside. On the right side of the chariot (outside) we see Tuthmosis in his chariot aiming his bow and arrow while supported by the war god Montu. The king charges a group of enemy charioteers, and he is shown overthrowing and killing the enemy. His protector, the goddess Nekhbet, is shown in the form of a vulture hovering over the scene. On the left side of the chariot (exterior) we again see Tuthmosis in a chariot, but in this instance he is holding a battle axe. He is again shown charging into battle and striking down the enemy. In both cases the enemy is shown with Asiatic features. Instead of Nekhbet, we see the hawk-headed god Horus flying above the scene. On the inside panels Tuthmosis is shown trampling his foes. On the left hand side we find the enemies of the North. They are specifically listed as (1) Naharaina (2) Sangana (3) Tounipa (4) Shasu (5) Kadshi and (6) Tikhisa. On the right hand side we find the enemies of the South, listed as (1) […]aa (2) Kalai (3) Mieou (4) Ilima (5) Gourases and (6) Diouraik.

The tomb still contained some 34 shawabti figures (some with model coffins), 29 blue faience libation vases (some 4-5 inches tall), approximately 89 vases, 10 libation cups, 50 small blue faience ankh signs, 19 blue faience throw sticks, 20 blue faience model papyrus rolls, 21 blue faience bracelets, 6 blue faience model kohl pots, 6 blue faience model heads of serpents, amulets, and an assortment of other miscellaneous objects.

The funerary cult of the King
The mortuary temple of Tuthmosis IV was built in Thebes, southwest of the (later) site of the Ramesseum.

       
A small chapel (barque-station) built by Tuthmosis IV at Thebes.
(photograph by Philip Arrhidaeus)

The mortuary temple later served as a model for the temples built by his son Amenhotep III.
It is interesting to note that the cult of the king was still active, more than a hundred years later, under Ramses II. In the tomb of Khonsu in Thebes it is mentioned that Khonsu was director of the lifestock of Menkheperure (Tuthmosis IV).


Court Officials

Djaba Meryre , Chief steward of the king [same as Meryre below?] (Topographical Bibliography - Statues)

Heqaerneheh, nurse of the king's son Amenhotep (the later pharaoh), TT64. Father: Hekreshu (Tutor of the King's Son). In the tomb we see Amenemhat (Son of Tuthmosis IV) and Queen Mutemwia (mother of Amenhotep III)

Meryre , Chief steward of the King, Overseer of the two houses of gold and silver, etc. Known from a statue. (Topographical Bibliography - Statues)

Nefertwah, Nurse of the King's son Menkheperure. Wife of Ay, Scribe of the counting of bread. TT350

Ra, First herald of the king, TT201

Sebekhotep , Overseer of the seal, etc. (TT63) Known from a statue holding small prince [Amen]hotep-merkhepesh  (future Amenophis III) Mayor of Fayum; Father: Min (Overseer of the Seal - i.e treasurer?) Wife: Meryt (Nurse of the King's daughter Tia, Chief of the Harem of Sobek of Shedty);  Son: Paser. (Topographical Bibliography - Statues)

Tjenuna, Overseer of the antechamber, Overseer of works, fan-bearer on the right of the king, TT76. Wife: Nebettaui (Topographical Bibliography - Statues)

Government Officials
Viziers:
Amenemipet called Pairy (TT29) (Southern Vizier) Continued from the time of Amenhotep II. See above.

Hepu (Southern Vizier) Depicted on a funerary cone from Thebes. Buried in TT66. His wife was named Rennai.

Seny? (Southern Vizier?) Listed on the website at Digitalegypt (London College)

Tuthmose (Northern Vizier) Possibly same as the Vizier who served under Amenhotep III.

Amenemopet, Overseer of the treasury of gold and silver, Judge, Overseer of the cabinet, Time of Tuthmosis IV (?) Parents: Nekhu (?) and Ahhotep;   Wife: Henutyunu. TT276

Menna, scribe of fields of Pharaoh (records and collects tax on grains), Thutmosis IV or Amenhotep III, TT69.



Priesthood

Amenhotep Sise, second priest of Amun TT75. Mother: Pa'a;  Wife: Roy

Djehutimosi , Great one of the council of Thoth lord of Hermopolis Magna, etc.) and wife(?) Ia J3.

Djeserkaraseneb, Amun granary official. His wife was Wadjrenpet and they had a son named Iri-nakht TT38.

Hety,Steward of the god's wife of Amun, Scribe, Counter of cattle of the God's Wife of Amun, Parents: Nebnufer (counter of cattle of the God's Wife) and Men. Wife: Nefertary.

Huy (I) , Overseer of cattle of Thoth lord of Hermopolis Magna, son of Bawy B3wjj , probably temp. Tuthmosis IV to Amenophis III,

Huy (II), Amun temple sculptor, probably Thutmes IV to Amenhotep III (?) TT54.

Ipy, overseer of boats in the temple of king Thutmose IV TT C6. Son of Lady Tuy;  Married to Mertseger; Two sons are known: Denreg (High priest of Monthu) and Piay (High Priest of Tuthmosis IV)

Kaemweset , Overseer of cattle of Amun, Steward of Amun, etc., (Topographical Bibliography - Statues)

Nebseny, high priest of Inheret (Onuris), Probably from time of Thutmosis IV TT108. Wife: Sensonb

Ptahmose: Chancellor, High Priest of Ptah at Memphis. Also written as Ptahmes. He was a brother of Meryptah, the prophet and treasurer of the temple of Nebmaatre. They were the sons of the Mayor and Vizier Djehutymes (Tuthmosis) and his wife Tawy. Time of Tuthmosis IV – Amenhotep III? Known from statue in Cairo Museum CG 584 (Topographical Bibliography - Statues)

Ptahemhat, overseer of works in the Amun domain, Child of the kap. Standard bearer for the Lord of the Two Lands, TT77.

Neferrenpet, supplier of dates/cakesin the temple of Amenhotep III, possibly from time of Thutmes IV, TT249.

Thutmose called Paroy, Head of the secrets in the Chest of Amubis, sem-priest in the Good House, Embalmer. Son of Sennuter (sem-priest in the Good House) and Senemioh(bet); Wives: Nefertary and Rennutet.Son: Huy. TT295

Tury Servant (sdm) of Hathor chieftainess of cattle, with cartouches of Tuthmosis III and IV,

Army and Police
Nebamun, captain of troops of police on the west of Thebes, Standardbearer of the Royal Barque. under Thutmose IV and Amenhotep III  His wives were named Sensenbut and Tiy TT90.
Tjenuny, general under Thutmosis III – IV, His wife is called Mutiry, TT74.
[Amenho]tep (erased), Head of the stable of His Majesty, First prophet of Onuris, etc., son of woman Riy
A stela shows sons Hat and Kenna, Chariot warriors of His Majesty, before Amenhotep and wife Henut , Songstress of Onuris.




Bibliography / Suggested Reading
1. J.H. Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol2, The eighteenth dynasty. Chicago 1906 (reprinted in 2001)
2. T.M. Davis, The tomb of Thoutmosis IV, London 1904 (reprinted in 2002)
3. A. Dodson and D. Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, London 2004
4. J. Fletcher, Chronicle of a Pharaoh: The Intimate Life of Amenhotep III, Oxford 2000.
5. D.C. Forbes, Tombs, treasures, mummies: Seven great discoveries of Egyptian archaeology, KMT Communications, 1998
6. N. Reeves,  Ancient Egypt: The Great Discoveries, London 2000
7. R. Wilkinson, The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt, New York, 2000.
http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/chronology/thutmosisiv.html













Comments: email barta@slu.edu